Pre-training visual language (VL) models on web-scale image-caption datasets has recently emerged as a powerful alternative to traditional pre-training on image classification data. Image-caption datasets are considered to be more “open-domain” because they contain broader scene types and vocabulary words, which result in models with strong performance in few- and zero-shot recognition tasks. However, images with fine-grained class descriptions can be rare, and the class distribution can be imbalanced since image-caption datasets do not go through manual curation. By contrast, large-scale classification datasets, such as ImageNet, are often curated and can thus provide fine-grained categories with a balanced label distribution. While it may sound promising, directly combining caption and classification datasets for pre-training is often unsuccessful as it can result in biased representations that do not generalize well to various downstream tasks.

In “Prefix Conditioning Unifies Language and Label Supervision”, presented at CVPR 2023, we demonstrate a pre-training strategy that uses both classification and caption datasets to provide complementary benefits. First, we show that naïvely unifying the datasets results in sub-optimal performance on downstream zero-shot recognition tasks as the model is affected by dataset bias: the coverage of image domains and vocabulary words is different in each dataset. We address this problem during training through prefix conditioning, a novel simple and effective method that uses prefix tokens to disentangle dataset biases from visual concepts. This approach allows the language encoder to learn from both datasets while also tailoring feature extraction to each dataset. Prefix conditioning is a generic method that can be easily integrated into existing VL pre-training objectives, such as Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training (CLIP) or Unified Contrastive Learning (UniCL).

High-level idea

We note that classification datasets tend to be biased in at least two ways: (1) the images mostly contain single objects from restricted domains, and (2) the vocabulary is limited and lacks the linguistic flexibility required for zero-shot learning. For example, the class embedding of “a photo of a dog” optimized for ImageNet usually results in a photo of one dog in the center of the image pulled from the ImageNet dataset, which does not generalize well to other datasets containing images of multiple dogs in different spatial locations or a dog with other subjects.

By contrast, caption datasets contain a wider variety of scene types and vocabularies. As shown below, if a model simply learns from two datasets, the language embedding can entangle the bias from the image classification and caption dataset, which can decrease the generalization in zero-shot classification. If we can disentangle the bias from two datasets, we can use language embeddings that are tailored for the caption dataset to improve generalization.

Top: Language embedding entangling the bias from image classification and caption dataset. Bottom: Language embeddings disentangles the bias from two datasets.

Prefix conditioning

Prefix conditioning is partially inspired by prompt tuning, which prepends learnable tokens to the input token sequences to instruct a pre-trained model backbone to learn task-specific knowledge that can be used to solve downstream tasks. The prefix conditioning approach differs from prompt tuning in two ways: (1) it is designed to unify image-caption and classification datasets by disentangling the dataset bias, and (2) it is applied to VL pre-training while the standard prompt tuning is used to fine-tune models. Prefix conditioning is an explicit way to specifically steer the behavior of model backbones based on the type of datasets provided by users. This is especially helpful in production when the number of different types of datasets is known ahead of time.

During training, prefix conditioning learns a text token (prefix token) for each dataset type, which absorbs the bias of the dataset and allows the remaining text tokens to focus on learning visual concepts. Specifically, it prepends prefix tokens for each dataset type to the input tokens that inform the language and visual encoder of the input data type (e.g., classification vs. caption). Prefix tokens are trained to learn the dataset-type-specific bias, which enables us to disentangle that bias in language representations and utilize the embedding learned on the image-caption dataset during test time, even without an input caption.

We utilize prefix conditioning for CLIP using a language and visual encoder. During test time, we employ the prefix used for the image-caption dataset since the dataset is supposed to cover broader scene types and vocabulary words, leading to better performance in zero-shot recognition.

Illustration of the Prefix Conditioning.

Experimental results

We apply prefix conditioning to two types of contrastive loss, CLIP and UniCL, and evaluate their performance on zero-shot recognition tasks compared to models trained with ImageNet21K (IN21K) and Conceptual 12M (CC12M). CLIP and UniCL models trained with two datasets using prefix conditioning show large improvements in zero-shot classification accuracy.

Zero-shot classification accuracy of models trained with only IN21K or CC12M compared to CLIP and UniCL models trained with both two datasets using prefix conditioning (“Ours”).

Study on test-time prefix

The table below describes the performance change by the prefix used during test time. We demonstrate that by using the same prefix used for the classification dataset (“Prompt”), the performance on the classification dataset (IN-1K) improves. When using the same prefix used for the image-caption dataset (“Caption”), the performance on other datasets (Zero-shot AVG) improves. This analysis illustrates that if the prefix is tailored for the image-caption dataset, it achieves better generalization of scene types and vocabulary words.

Analysis of the prefix used for test-time.

Study on robustness to image distribution shift

We study the shift in image distribution using ImageNet variants. We see that the “Caption” prefix performs better than “Prompt” in ImageNet-R (IN-R) and ImageNet-Sketch (IN-S), but underperforms in ImageNet-V2 (IN-V2). This indicates that the “Caption” prefix achieves generalization on domains far from the classification dataset. Therefore, the optimal prefix probably differs by how far the test domain is from the classification dataset.

Analysis on the robustness to image-level distribution shift. IN: ImageNet, IN-V2: ImageNet-V2, IN-R: Art, Cartoon style ImageNet, IN-S: ImageNet Sketch.

Conclusion and future work

We introduce prefix conditioning, a technique for unifying image caption and classification datasets for better zero-shot classification. We show that this approach leads to better zero-shot classification accuracy and that the prefix can control the bias in the language embedding. One limitation is that the prefix learned on the caption dataset is not necessarily optimal for the zero-shot classification. Identifying the optimal prefix for each test dataset is an interesting direction for future work.


This research was conducted by Kuniaki Saito, Kihyuk Sohn, Xiang Zhang, Chun-Liang Li, Chen-Yu Lee, Kate Saenko, and Tomas Pfister. Thanks to Zizhao Zhang and Sergey Ioffe for their valuable feedback.


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2,365 thoughts on “Unifying image-caption and image-classification datasets with prefix conditioning – Google AI Blog”
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    عالی وب‌سایت دارید اینجا.. پیدا کردنش سخت است} کیفیت خوب مانند شما امروز.
    من واقعا از افراد مثل شما قدردانی می کنم!

    مراقب باش!!|
    این وب‌سایت توسط پسر عمویم توصیه شد.
    به خاطر داشته باش. من به شما می گویم، من مطمئناهمزمان با
    عصبانیت همزمان |نگرانی|مسائل} که آنها به
    وضوحدر مورد نگرانی هایی که فقط نمی دانند.
    شما توانستید به بالا ضربه بزنید و همه چیز را بدون داشتن عوارض جانبی مشخص کردید، مردم
    شما واقعاً آن را {به نظر می‌آید} خیلی آسان با ارائه‌تان اما
    من پیدا کردن این مهم بودن واقعا یک چیز که من فکر می‌کنم می‌خواهم هرگز فهمیدن.
    برای من
    باید در مسابقه یکی از با بالاترین کیفیت در شرکت کنید وبلاگ‌ها در اینترنت.

    می‌خواهم به شدت توصیه می‌کنم این وب‌سایت!
    روی وبلاگ شما.|
    وبلاگ عالی! من آن را در حین گشت و گشتن در
    یاهو نیوز پیدا کردم. آیا پیشنهاد در مورد
    نحوه قرار گرفتن در لیست یاهو نیوز دارید؟
    مدتی است که تلاش می کنم اما به نظر می رسد هرگز به آنجا نرسیدم!

    سپاس فراوان|
    عالی وب سایت. A lot of مفید اطلاعات
    در اینجا. من آن را برای چند دوستان ارسال می‌کنم و به‌علاوه در خوشمزه
    به اشتراک می‌گذارند. و البته، ممنونم عرق شما!|
    باعظمت انتشار، بسیار آموزنده.

    معجبم چرا دیگر متخصصان این بخش {نمی‌دانند} توجه می‌کنند.
    نوشتن خود را باید ادامه دهید.من مطمئن هستم}، شما پایگاه خوانندگان بسیار بزرگی دارید!|
    ضرب فوق العاده ! وقتی وب‌سایت خود را اصلاح می‌کنید،
    می‌خواهم شاگردی کنم، چگونه می‌توانم برای
    وبلاگ وب‌سایت مشترک شوم؟ حساب aided روشن و شفاف ایده| آشنا بودم.

    عالی امتیاز در مجموع، شما فقط بردید یک خواننده جدید.
    چه چیزی آیا شما توصیه می‌کنید در مورد انتشار خود} که
    شما روز در گذشته؟ آیا قطعی؟|
    آیا اشکالی ندارید که چند از پست‌ها شما
    را تا زمانی که اعتبار و منابع را به وبلاگ شما ارائه می‌دهم نقل کنم؟ وبلاگ
    من در بسیار یکسان توقف شماست و کاربران
    من قطعا از برخی از اطلاعاتی که
    در اینجا {ارائه می‌دهید}. لطفاً
    به من اطلاع دهید اگر این خیلی خوب با
    شماست. ممنونم!|
    با داشتن این همه محتوا آیا تا
    به حال با مسائل سرقت ادبی یا نقض
    حق چاپ مواجه شده اید؟ وبلاگ من دارای محتوای بی نظیر زیادی است که من خودم یا خودم نویسنده} یا برون سپاری کرده
    ام، اما به نظر می رسد بسیاری از آن ها هستند.

    نمایش آن در سرتاسر وب بدون موافق من.
    آیا هیچ تکنیک برای کمک به محافظت در برابر بیان|گفتن} و راهی که در آن که در آن
    می‌گویی. می‌سازید آن را سرگرم‌کننده می‌کنید و به آن ادامه می‌دهید مواظب تا
    آن را باهوش نگه دارید} . من نمی‌توانم صبر کنم تا از شما بیاموزم خیلی بیشتر.
    این است در واقع یک عالی سایت.|
    اگر کسی نیاز دارد با جدیدترین فناوری‌ها به‌روز شود بنابراین باید به دیدن
    این صفحه وب بروید و همه وقت به روز
    من معجب بودم که آیا تا به حال {به این فکر می‌کنید که} طرح‌بندی صفحه blog خود
    را تغییر دهید؟ بسیار خوب نوشته شده است؛ من عاشق چیزی هستم که باید بگویی اما شاید
    بتوانید کمی بیشتر در مسیر محتوا قرار دهید تا مردم بتوانند بهتر با آن ارتباط برقرار کنند.
    فقط برای داشتن 1 یا 2 تصاویر متن بسیار زیادی دارید.
    شاید بتوانید آن را بهتر از
    هم جدا کنید؟|
    خیلی به سرعت این وب‌سایت در میان همه وبلاگی مردم، به
    دلیل اینکه مقالات یا نظرات است، خوب
    اگر کسی نیاز نظر متخصص مربوط وبلاگینگ
    بعد از آن پیشنهاد به او برای بازدید این وبلاگ، ادامه دهید خوب کار.|
    اجناس فوق العاده از شما مرد. من مطالب شما را قبلاً درک کرده ام و تو فقط بسیار عالی} عالی.
    من در واقع آنچه را که در اینجا به دست
    آورده‌اید، واقعاً، مطمئنا آنچه را که شما} و نحوه بیان آن را دوست دارم.

    شما آن را سرگرم کننده می‌کنید و همچنان مواظب هستید تا آن را معقول نگه دارید.
    من نمیتونم صبر کنم تا خیلی بیشتر از شما بخونم.

    این در واقع یک برد فوق العاده استderful| فوق العاده} وب سایت.|
    ضرب فوق العاده ! من می‌خواهمدر حالی که وب‌سایت خود
    را اصلاح می‌کنید، چگونه می‌توان برای
    یک وبلاگ مشترک شوم. وب سایت؟ حساب به
    من کمک کرد یک معامله قابل قبول. من کمیآشنای} با این
    پخش شما ارائه روشن شفاف ایده|
    معمولا من در وبلاگ‌ها نمی‌ پست می‌کنم، هر
    چند می‌خواهم بگویم که این نوشته بسیار فشار بررسی کنم و
    آن را انجام دهم! طعم نوشتن شما مرا متعجب کرده است.

    ممنونم، بسیار خوب مقاله.|
    این وب‌سایت توسط پسر عمویم} توصیه
    شد. من دیگر مطمئن آیا این قرار داده نوشته شده است از
    طریق خوب نوشته شده است. مطمئن می‌شوم آن را نشانک‌گذاری می‌کنم و برمی‌گردم تا
    از مفید بیشتر مفید بیشتر.
    بابت پست متشکرم. حتما برمی گردم.|
    با تشکر برای را تخصص داشتم، همانطور که بارگذاری مجدد وب‌سایت بسیاری
    بارها قبل از من می‌توانستم آن را به‌درستی بارگیری
    کنم. می‌دانستم که آیا میزبانی وب شما خوب است؟ نه اینکه شکایت
    می‌کنم، اما زمان‌های بارگیری گاهی
    روی قرارگیری شما در Google تأثیر می‌گذارد و می‌تواند به بالا بودن شما آسیب برساند.
    امتیاز -quality در صورت تبلیغات و بازاریابی با
    Adwords. به هر حال من این RSS را به ایمیل خود اضافه می‌کنم و می‌توانم به دنبال بسیار
    چیزهای دیگر جذاب شما باشم. محتوای | هیجان
    انگیز}. مطمئن شوید این را دوباره به زودی به روز کنید.|
    آنچه من نمی‌فهمم این است که در
    واقع چگونه شما اکنون نه در واقع خیلی بیشتر به‌طور منظم-مورد علاقه از شما ممکن است در
    حال حاضر. تو خیلی باهوشی.
    از قبل می‌دانید بنابراین به‌طور قابل
    ملاحظه‌ای وقتی صحبت از این موضوع، من را از
    نظر من تصور کنید آن را از {تصور کنید} زوایای بسیار زیاد|تعدادی|بسیاری از} تعدادی.
    مانند زنان و مردان به نظر نمی‌رسد درگیر
    مگر این است چیزی کاری} برای انجام با گاگای
    دختر! شخصی چیزهای عالی است.
    همیشه مراقبت!|
    عجب! در نهایت من یک صفحه وب دریافت کردم که از آنجا میتوانم واقعا |در واقع|درست|واقعاً} به دست آوردن مفید اطلاعات درباره مطالعه و دانش من.|
    وقتی کسی مقاله را می نویسد، ایده یک کاربر را
    در ذهن خود
    تو خیلی باحال! نمی‌دانم باور واقعا خوانده‌ام چیزی مثل این قبل.
    خیلی عالی کشف کسی با چند افکار اصیل در مورد این موضوع.
    واقعا.. ممنونم برای شروع این کار.
    این سایت چیزی است که لازم است در
    اینترنت، کسی
    A impressive! من همین الان این را برای یک همکار که
    بود انجامکوچکی تحقیق در مورد این.
    و برای من در واقع سفارش داد ناهار به این
    دلیل که برای او کشف کردم روده بر شدن از خنده.
    بنابراین {اجازه دهید} این را دوباره بنویسم ….
    متشکرم وعده غذایی!! اما بله، {تشکر} از اینکه مدتی زمان را صرف بحث و گفتگو
    در مورد این مسئله در اینجا در سایت.
    برای من، چون این فرصت من دارم این تأثیرگذار آموزنده بند را اینجا در
    چه خبر، همه اینجا صدا پیش می‌رود و البته همه اطلاعات
    را به اشتراک می‌گذارند، این
    واقعا خوب، به نوشتن ادامه دهید.|
    A impressive! من همین الان این را برای
    یک دوست که بود انجامکوچکی تکلیف در مورد این.
    و برای من در واقع خرید صبحانه چون برای او پیدا کردم روده بر شدن از
    خنده. بنابراین {اجازه دهید} این را دوباره بنویسم ….
    متشکرم وعده غذایی!! اما بله، {تشکر} از اینکه زمان را صرف بحث و گفتگو در مورد}
    این مسئله در اینجا در وبلاگ.|
    اوه این وبلاگ عالی من دوست دارم مقالات
    شما را می‌خوانم|مطالعه
    می‌کنم. {بمانید|به کار {خوب|عالی} ادامه دهید!
    {می‌دانید|می‌فهمید|می‌دانید|می‌شناسید|از قبل می‌دانید}، {بسیاری|بسیاری از|خیلی‌ها} {مردم هستند|افراد هستند|افراد} {شکار|جستجو|نگاه می‌کنند}
    {در اطراف|دور می‌گردند} برای این {اطلاعات|اطلاعات}، {می‌توانید|می‌توانید} بسیار به
    آنها {کمک|کمک کنید}. |
    {سلام|هیا|هی|هی|روز بخیر|سلام|سلام|سلام|سلام|سلام}!
    من می دانم که این تا حدی خارج از موضوع است {با این حال،|با این وجود|اما|اما} فکر می کردم بپرسم.
    آیا علاقه مند به {تبادل|تجارت} پیوندها هستید یا
    ممکن است مهمان {نوشتن|نویسنده} یک وبلاگ {مقاله|پست} باشید یا بالعکس؟ {وب‌سایت|سایت|وبلاگ} من {می‌گذرد|بحث می‌کند|آدرس|پوشش می‌دهد}

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